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Pepper in Los Angeles, 1979
|Birth name||Arthur Edward Pepper Jr.|
|Born||September 1, 1925|
Gardena, California, U.S.
|Died||June 15, 1982 (aged 56)|
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Arthur Edward Pepper Jr. (September 1, 1925 – June 15, 1982) was an American alto saxophonist and very occasional tenor saxophonist and clarinetist. A longtime figure in West Coast jazz, Pepper came to prominence in Stan Kenton's big band. He was known for his emotionally charged performances and several stylistic shifts throughout his career, and was described by critic Scott Yanow as "the world's great altoist" at the time of his death.
Art Pepper was born in Gardena, California, on September 1, 1925. His mother was a 14-year-old runaway; his father, a merchant seaman. Both were violent alcoholics, and when Art was still quite young he was sent to live with his paternal grandmother. He expressed early musical interest and talent, and he was given lessons. He began playing clarinet at nine, switched to alto saxophone at 13 and immediately began jamming on Central Avenue, the black nightclub district of Los Angeles.
At the age of 17 he began playing professionally with Benny Carter and then became part of the Stan Kenton orchestra, touring with that band until he was drafted in 1943. After the war he returned to Los Angeles and joined the Kenton Innovations Orchestra. By the 1950s Pepper was recognized as one of the leading alto saxophonists in jazz, finishing second only to Charlie Parker as Best Alto Saxophonist in the DownBeat magazine Readers Poll of 1952. Along with Chet Baker, Gerry Mulligan and Shelly Manne, and perhaps due more to geography than playing style, Pepper is often associated with the musical movement known as West Coast jazz, as contrasted with the East Coast (or "hot") jazz of Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie and Miles Davis. Some of Pepper's most famous albums from the 1950s are Art Pepper Meets the Rhythm Section, Art Pepper + Eleven – Modern Jazz Classics, Gettin' Together, and Smack Up. Representative music from this time appears on The Aladdin Recordings (three volumes), The Early Show, The Late Show, The Complete Surf Ride, and The Way It Was!, which features a session recorded with Warne Marsh.
His career was repeatedly interrupted by several prison stints stemming from his addiction to heroin, but Pepper managed to have several memorable and productive "comebacks". Remarkably, his substance abuse and legal travails did not affect the quality of his recordings, which maintained a high level of musicianship throughout his career until his death in 1982.
His last comeback saw Pepper, who had started his career in Stan Kenton's big band, becoming a member of Buddy Rich's Big Band from 1968 to 1969. During the mid-1970s and early 1980s he toured Europe and Japan with his own groups and recorded dozens of albums, mostly for Fantasy Records.
Pepper lived for many years in the hills of Echo Park, in Los Angeles. He had become a heroin addict in the 1940s, and his career was interrupted by drug-related prison sentences in 1954–56, 1960–61, 1961–64 and 1964–65; the final two sentences were served in San Quentin. While in San Quentin he played in an ensemble with saxophonist Frank Morgan. In the late 1960s Pepper spent time in Synanon, a drug rehabilitation group.
His autobiography, Straight Life (1980, co-written with his third wife Laurie Pepper), discusses the jazz music world, as well as drug and criminal subcultures of mid-20th century California. Soon after the publication of this book, the director released the documentary film Art Pepper: Notes from a Jazz Survivor, discussing his life and featuring interviews with both Art and his wife Laurie, as well as footage from a live performance in Malibu jazz club. Laurie Pepper also released an interview to NPR.
- Surf Ride (Savoy, 1952–54)
- Two Altos (Regent, 1952–54; with Sonny Red)
- The Return of Art Pepper (Jazz: West, 1956; with Jack Sheldon)
- Playboys (Pacific Jazz, 1956; with Chet Baker and Phil Urso, reissued as Picture of Heath)
- The Art Pepper Quartet (Tampa, 1956)
- Art Pepper with Warne Marsh (Contemporary, 1956)
- Collections (Intro, 1957; with Red Norvo, Joe Morello and Gerry Wiggins)
- Modern Art (Intro, 1957)
- Art Pepper Meets the Rhythm Section (Contemporary, 1957)
- The Art of Pepper (Omega, 1957)
- Art in L.A. (WestWind, 2-CD set, 1957/60 )
- Art Pepper + Eleven – Modern Jazz Classics (Contemporary, 1959)
- Gettin' Together (Contemporary, 1960; with Conte Candoli)
- Smack Up (Contemporary, 1960; with Jack Sheldon)
- Intensity (Contemporary, 1960)
- Art Pepper Quartet in San Francisco [live] (Fresh Sound, 1964)
- Art Pepper Quintet : Live at Donte's 1968 [live] (Fresh Sound, 1968; with Joe Romano)
- Garden State Jam Sessions [live] Bootleg (Lone Hill Jazz, 1975)
- I'll Remember April : Live at Foothill College (Storyville, 1975)
- Living Legend (Contemporary, 1975)
- The Trip (Contemporary, 1976)
- A Night in Tunisia [live] (Storyville, 1977)
- Tokyo Debut [live] (Galaxy, 1977) - also released as First Live in Japan
- No Limit (Contemporary, 1977)
- Thursday Night at the Village Vanguard [live] (Contemporary, 1977)
- Friday Night at the Village Vanguard [live] (Contemporary, 1977)
- Saturday Night at the Village Vanguard [live] (Contemporary, 1977)
- More for Les at the Village Vanguard [live] (Contemporary, 1977)
- San Francisco Samba [live] (Contemporary, 1977)
- Live in Japan, Vol. 1: Ophelia (Storyville, 1978)
- Live in Japan, Vol. 2 (Storyville, 1978)
- Among Friends (Interplay, 1978)
- Art Pepper Today (Galaxy, 1978)
- New York Album (Galaxy, 1979 )
- So in Love (Artists House, 1979)
- Artworks (Galaxy, 1979 )
- (Victor [Japan], 1979 )
- Tokyo Encore [live] (Dreyfus, 1979)
- Landscape [live] (Galaxy, 1979)
- Besame Mucho [live] (Galaxy, 1979)
- Straight Life (Galaxy, 1979)
- Winter Moon (Galaxy, 1980; with Howard Roberts)
- One September Afternoon (Galaxy, 1980)
- Art Pepper with Duke Jordan in Copenhagen 1981 [live] (Galaxy, 1981; with Duke Jordan)
- Roadgame [live] (Galaxy, 1981)
- Art Lives [live] (Galaxy, 1981)
- APQ [live] (Galaxy, 1981)
- Arthur's Blues [live] (Galaxy, 1981)
- Art 'n' Zoot [live] (Pablo, 1981 ; with Zoot Sims)
- Darn That Dream (Real Time, 1982)
- Tête-à-Tête (Galaxy, 1982; with George Cables)
- Goin' Home (Galaxy, 1982; with George Cables)
- Summer Knows (Absord (Japan) )
- Unreleased Art, vols. 1–6. (Widow's Taste, [2006-12])
With Chet Baker
With Jesse Belvin
- Mr. Easy (RCA, 1959)
With Hoagy Carmichael
- Hoagy Sings Carmichael (Pacific Jazz, 1956)
With Dolo Coker
With Richie Cole
- Richie Cole and... Return to Alto Acres (Palo Alto, 1982)
With Conte Candoli
- Mucho Calor (Andex, 1957; with Bill Perkins, Russ Freeman, Ben Tucker, Chuck Flores, Jack Costanzo and Mike Pacheko)
- Herb Ellis Meets Jimmy Giuffre (Verve, 1959)
With Art Farmer
- On the Road (Contemporary, 1976)
With Jerry Fielding
- The Gauntlet (Soundtrack) (Warner Bros., 1977)
With Johnny Griffin
- Birds and Ballads (Galaxy, 1978)
With Toni Harper
- Lady Lonely (RCA, 1959)
- Night Mood (RCA, 1960)
With Freddie Hubbard
- Mistral (East World (Japan)/Liberty (US), 1980)
With Elvin Jones
- Very R.A.R.E. (Trio (Japan), 1979)
With Stan Kenton
- The Kenton Era – (Capitol, 1940–54)
- Stan Kenton's Milestones (Capitol, 1943–47)
- Stan Kenton Classics (Capitol, 1944–47)
- Encores (Capitol, 1947)
- A Presentation of Progressive Jazz (Capitol, 1947)
- Innovations in Modern Music (Capitol, 1950)
- Stan Kenton Presents (Capitol, 1950)
- The Innovations Orchestra (with Stan Kenton) Capitol, 1950–51 )
- Popular Favorites by Stan Kenton (Capitol, 1953)
- This Modern World (Capitol, 1953)
With Barney Kessel
- Some Like It Hot (Contemporary, 1959)
With Milcho Leviev
- Blues for the Fisherman [Live] (Mole, 1980)
- True Blues [Live] (Mole, 1980)
With Shelly Manne
- The West Coast Sound (Contemporary, 1953)
With Jack Nitzsche
- Heart Beat (Soundtrack) (Capitol, 1980)
With Anita O'Day
- Cool Heat (Verve, 1959)
With Marty Paich
- The Marty Paich Quartet featuring Art Pepper (Tampa/VSOP, 1956)
With André Previn
- The Subterraneans (Soundtrack) (MGM, 1960)
With Buddy Rich Big Band)
- Mercy, Mercy (Pacific Jazz, 1968)
With Shorty Rogers
- Popo (Xanadu, 1951 )
- Modern Sounds (Capitol, 1951)
- Shorty Rogers and His Giants (RCA Victor, 1953)
- Cool and Crazy (RCA Victor, 1953)
- The Swingin' Nutcracker (RCA Victor, 1960)
- Jazz Styles and Analysis: Alto Sax by Harry Miedema. Chicago, Fifth Printing, Feb . 1979. Includes Broadway.
- Straight Life: the Story of Art Pepper by Art Pepper and Laurie Pepper. New York and London, 1979. ISBN 0-02-871820-8. Includes the head of Straight Life.
- Jazz 2: Sax Alto. Transcribed by John Robert Brown. International Music Publications, Woodford Green, Essex, 1986. ISBN 0-86359-408-5. Includes 'Round Midnight.
- The Genius of Art Pepper. Foreword by Laurie Pepper. North Sydney, Warner/Chappell Music, 1987. ISBN 1-86362-012-5. Includes: Arthur's Blues; Blues for Blanche; Funny Blues; Landscape; Make a List Make a Wish; Mambo de la Pinta; Mambo Koyama; Mr Big Falls his J.G. Hand; Our Song; Road Game; September Song; Tete a Tete. All transcriptions include parts for Alto and Rhythm; Funny Blues also has a part for Trumpet.
- Masters of the Alto Saxophone Play The Blues. Jazz Alto Solos. Transcribed by Trent Kynaston and Jonathan Ball. Corybant Productions, 1990. Includes True Blues.
- The Art Pepper Collection. Foreword by Jeff Sultanof. Milwaukee, Hal Leonard, 1995. ISBN 0-7935-4007-0. Includes: Art's Oregano; Diane; Landscape; Las Cuevas de Mario; Make a List (Make a Wish); Mr. Big Falls his J.G. Hand; Ophelia; Pepper Returns; Sometime; Straight Life; Surf Ride(I); Surf Ride(II); That's Love; The Trip; Waltz Me Blues.
- West Coast Jazz Saxophone Solos transcribed and edited by Robert A. Luckey, Ph.D. Features 15 recorded solos from 1952–1961, including five solos by Art Pepper. Olympia Music Publishing, 1996. ISBN 0-9667047-1-1.
Transcriptions available on the Internet:
- Birk's Works
- Groovin' High
- Red Pepper Blues
- Star Eyes
- The Way You Look Tonight
- Too Close For Comfort
- What Is This Thing Called Love?
- You'd Be So Nice To Come Home To
A more extensive bibliography is issued by the Jazzinstitut Darmstadt
- 1956 Art Pepper... Tells the Tragic Role Narcotics Played in Blighting His Career and Life by John Tynan. Downbeat, September 19, 1956, p. 16.
- 1957 Art Pepper Quartet by John Tynan. Downbeat, May 16, 1957, p. 34.
- 1960 Art Pepper: Profile of a Comeback by J. McKinney. Metronome, lxxvii, September 1960, p. 26.
- 1960 The Return of Art Pepper by John Tynan. Downbeat, xxvii/8, 1960, p. 17.
- 1960 End of the Road by John Tynan. Downbeat, xxvii/25, 1960, p. 13.
- 1964 Art Pepper's not the Same by John Tynan. Downbeat, xxxi/22, 1964, p. 18.
- 1965 "Jazz Discographies Unlimited" Presents "Art Pepper". A Complete Discography Compiled by Ernie Edwards, Jr. Ernie Edwards Jr. et al. Jazz Discographies Unlimited, Spotlight Series, Vol. 4. Oct . 1965. 22pp.
- 1973 Art Pepper: 'I'm Here to Stay!' by C. Marra. Downbeat, xl/4, 1973, p. 16.
- 1975 Pepper's Painful Road to Pure Art by L. Underwood. Downbeat, xlii/11, 1975, p. 16.
- 1979 Straight Life: the Story of Art Pepper by Art Pepper and Laurie Pepper. New York and London, 1979. ISBN 0-02-871820-8. Includes a discography.
- 1979 Art Pepper: Rewards of the Straight Life by P. Welding. Downbeat, xlvi/18, 1979, p. 16.
- 1979 The Contemporary Art of Pepper by Chris Sheridan. Jazz Journal International, Vol. 32, No. 9, September 1979, p. 9.
- 1979 The evolution of an individualist; Interview with Les Tomkins.
- 1980 Art Pepper. Swing Journal, xxxiv/1, 1980, p. 162.
- 1980 At Ronnie's; Interview with Les Tomkins.
- 1980 A rich past, and a bright future; Interview with Les Tomkins.
- 1981 New Fields Still to Conquer; Interview with Les Tomkins.
- 1981 The Whiteness of the Wail by Gary Giddins, in Riding on a Blue Note. New York, O.U.P., 1981, pp. 252–257. (An article originally published in July 1977.)
- 1986 Art Pepper: I Want to Play so Bad by David Nicholson Pepperell. Wire Magazine, Issue 28, June 1986, pp. 26–31.
- 1986 Art Pepper, 1926-1982 by Gary Giddins, in Rhythm-a-ning: Jazz Tradition and Innovation in the 80s. New York, O.U.P., 1986, pp. 106–108. (An article originally published in June 1982.)
- 1992 Straight Life by Ted Gioia, in West Coast Jazz: Modern Jazz in California, 1945-1960. New York and Oxford, O.U.P., 1992, pp. 283–307 (Chapter Fourteen). ISBN 0-19-508916-2.
- 2000 The Art Pepper Companion: Writings on a Jazz Original by Todd Selbert. Cooper Square Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-8154-1067-6.
- 2014* ART: Why I Stuck with a Junkie Jazzman" by Laurie Pepper. Arthur Pepper Music Corporation ISBN 978-1494297572
- 2014* The Tale of the Tape by Lili Anolik. Harper's Magazine
- Slonimsky, Nicolas; Theodore Baker (1992). Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, Eighth Edition. New York, New York: Schirmer Books.
- Yannow, Scott. Art Pepper Biography from Allmusic.com, accessed 12 September 2016
- Dupuis, Robert. "Art Pepper." Contemporary Musicians: Profiles of the People in Music. Vol. 18. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1997. 164-67. Print.
- "Frank Morgan On Piano Jazz". NPR.org. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Straight Life: The Story Of Art Pepper by Art Pepper and Laurie Pepper, Da Capo Press (reprint of original 1979 book published by Schirmer Books, a division of MacMillan Publishing).
- "Movie Review : Tales of Jazz Saxophonists". Movies.nytimes.com. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Giddins, Gary (October 19, 2000). "Rhythm-a-ning: Jazz Tradition And Innovation". Da Capo Press. Retrieved July 30, 2017 – via Google Books.
- Art Pepper at Find a Grave
- Straight Life – The Stories of Art Pepper
- The Art Pepper Discography Project
- NPR Interview With Laurie Pepper
- Robert Pinsky's poem "The Hearts" (1990) contains a reference to Art Pepper and Straight Life